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The descendants of the Exiles of Numenor who founded the mighty Kingdom of 
Gondor, the southern Dunedain, unlike their Arnorian cousins, remain 
comparatively well-established. Though the last Dunadan King in the South has 
been long lost, the Dunedain of Gondor rose up a Steward to temporarily rule, 
and have in this way preserved the leadership of their Kingdom. Many Gondorian 
Dunedain inhabit the fiefdom of Belfalas in the south of their territory, and 
are concenrated in the cities of Dol Amroth, Minas Tirith and Pelargir. They 
are characterized by their somewhat pale complexion, dark hair and grey-hued 
eyes. 

The Noble Greathouses of Dol-Amroth

...

The three loyal houses (house of Beor, house of Haladin and the house of Marach) to the Valar during the war are rewarded by the Valar with the creation of Andor (a land between Aman, home of the Valar, and Middle-Earth), the land a gift for their services to the Valar against the enemy Morgoth. The leaders of the Edain are Elrond and Elros, half-elven brothers, who are given the choice of remaining with their Eldar kindred or becoming Kings among men. Elrond, as most know, chooses to his elven blood, while his brother Elros choose to become man. Elros is then pronounced King of the Numenoreans and raises the great city of Andunie. Elros rules the Numenoreans in times of peace for four hundred and ten years, living to the age of five hundred.

The Valar have commanded the Numenoreans to never set sail to Aman, in hopes that they would never seek the immortality of the Valar, overpassing the limits of their bliss. In this time, the Numenoreans sail east to the lands of Middle-earth, coming across lesser races of men who they take under protection, teaching many new skills and trades, most often being hailed as great givers and educators. Kings rule for long spans of time, and by the thirteenth king of Numenor, the Edain begin to question the commands of the Valar. This is hinted at being caused by the former servants of Morgoth, and is brought to the attention to the Valar by the Eldar, who report much of the happenings of Numenor to the Valar, which further breeds some distrust between the races. The mutterings of immortality and Aman become so prominent, as the Numenoreans become ever more rich, respected, and powerful from their missions in Middle-Earth.. They become so concerned with the passage of time and clinging to life, that the Valar send messengers with grave warnings to the Numenoreans of their thoughts of traveling to Aman.

The King Tar-Ciryatan the Ship-builder, and his son Tar-Atanamir, are widely seen as the first Numenoreans to break from the Valar and Eldar. They ignore the warnings of the Valar, clinging to life, and now instead of going to Middle-Earth as givers and educators, they now put the lands of Arda under tribute, taking wealth from these lands. The majority of the Numenoreans follow suit after their King, and likewise fall into these vices against the will of the Valar.

By the time Tar-Atanamir becomes King, the Numenoreans have made great strongholds in Middle-Earth as Lords of Men, sending great ships back to Andor filled with treasures raped from the lands they hold now as conquerors. while the Numenoreans do not openly break the ban to sail west, they grow proud and estranged from the Eldar and Valar, no longer giving offerings to Eru. The people split openly into two parties, the King's Men and the Elf-Friend. the King's Men are the vast majority of the people, who follow his path away from the Valar, while the Elf-friends are much smaller and retain the friendship of the Eldar.

In the times following this, Sauron the servant of Morgoth rises to power in Middle-Earth and builds himself a fortress in Barad-dur, where he hopes to enslave all of Middle-earth and become "the king over all kings and god unto Men." The Numenoreans during this time also see their lifespans wane due to their rebellion, but only become more hardened towards the Valar, thinking this of their doing.

When the 19th King arises, he takes the name Adunakhor, Lord of the West, the title given to the Valar, and he abolishes the use of elven-tongue in his hearing, though he uses high-elven speech in the Kings scrolls fearing to utterly break from the Valar and incur their wrath.

The 22nd King, Ar-Gimilizor, hailed as the greatest enemy of the Elf-Friends, comes into power with a hatred against the Eldar, utterly banning their tongue and causing the decline of the White Tree. He commanded the elf-friends to be rounded up and to live only in the settlement of Romenna. The king has two sons, one Inziladun who does not take after his father an is an ally of the Elf-friends, and the other Gimilkhad, who is much like his father, proud and willful. 

When Inziladun takes the throne as Tar-Palantir, there is peace once more for the Elf-friends. He reneges on many of the deeds of his forefathers, tending to the white Tree, allowing Elven to be spoken once again, and addressing many of the wrongs done by the Kings. Unfortunately, he lives very short for the line of Elros, less than two hundred years, and passes without a son, and only a daughter.

The proud second son Gimilkhad (in the opinion of the writer being the first true Black Numenorean) desires power so much that he seizes the throne of Numenor, forcing his own niece to marry him. He takes the sceptre of kings in his own hand, and takes the name Ar-Pharazon.

"Mightiest and proudest was Ar-Pharazon the Golden of all those who wielded the Sceptre of Sea-Kings since the foundation of Numenor; and three and twenty Kings and Queens had ruled Numenor before, and slept now in their deep tombs under the mount of Meneltarma, lying on beds of gold."

Ar-Pharazon learns of the rise of Sauron as a power in Middle-earth, and becomes greatly angered that any would challenge his supremacy. Without the council of the Valar, or any of his own peoples, he builds a great army and fleet, sending them to Middle-earth where he lays siege to Sauron in Barad-dur. Sauron surrenders to Ar-Pharazon and is taken as prisoner back to Numenor.

Once in Numenor, Sauron devotes his dark arts further to the corruption of the Numenoreans. He becomes the King's most trusted adviser, turning the King to the worship of Morgoth (Melkor) at first secretly, but then in open in front of his people who for the most part follow his choice. The White Tree is cut down and burnt in Sauron's temple, which the king erects, and the Elf-friends are given to Sauron by the King for dark sacrifices which the Numenoreans take part in.

The pride of Ar-Pharazon grows so great, that he builds the greatest armada and army in history to invade the lands of Aman, home of the Valar themselves. Upon reaching the lands, the Valar seem to concede defeat in the face of these Numenoreans for they lay down government of the lands, and Illuvatar destroys the lands of Numenor and sinks their fleet for their punishment.

The surviving elf-friends are warned in time and escape on ship to Middle-earth under Elendil, Isildur, and Anarion and go on to form the lines of the Dunedain in Arnor and Gondor. The surviving Kings Men (who were likely administering the kings conquests in Middle-earth) go on to become the remaining Black Numenoreans and continue on in the service of Sauron.

...

More documentation soon to be available.

All credit to Faroukel for the documentation on the Fall of Numenor, Rise of the Dunedain.